Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, 2018, 17(6)

Original articles

Arterial hypertension

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL METHODS FOR BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN THE MORNING IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

Andreeva G. F., Deev A. D., Gorbunov V. M.

National Medical Research Center of Preventive Medicine, Moscow, Russia

Abstract

Aim. To compare the known methods of blood pressure (BP) measurement in the morning and a new method for estimating the average morning BP for fixed time intervals, comparing their reproducibility and validity.

Material and methods. We analyzed database containing 983 cases of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Results of ABMP in patients with hypertension without severe associated diseases and weekly cancellation of antihypertensive therapy were analyzed. Blood pressure data per 24-hour period, day and night, level and rate of morning

BP surge were assessed. In addition, we proposed new method for estimating the average morning BP level for fixed time intervals, based on calculating the average BP level for the following time windows: from 5:00 to 7:00 a.m., from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m., from 9:00 to 11:00 a.m. To assess the reproducibility of the new method, we determined correlations between the first and second group results calculated by the new method based on two repeated ABPM conducted with 1-2 weeks interval (n=90). To study the validity of the new method for measurement of average morning BP level, we used an objective validation criterion — Left Ventricular Myocardium Mass Index (LVMMI). There were performed 98 echocardiographic tests with the use of Acuson 128XP. LVMMI was calculated using the L. Teichholtz method (1976).

Results. The new method for measurement of average morning BP level had good reproducibility while the reproducibility of dynamic showings of ABMP (level and rate of morning BP surge) was low. A new method for assessing morning blood pressure was characterized by a high level of validity: the indicators obtained using this technique reliably correlated with the validation criteria: LVMI and the average daily blood pressure level.

Conclusion. The proposed new method for estimating the average morning level of blood pressure has a high level of validity and reproducibility. Time interval from 7 to 9 a. m. seems to be the most optimal. The maximum reproducibility of the showings was noted during this period.

Key words: arterial hypertension, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, morning surge in blood pressure.

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):5–12

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-5-12

Andreeva G. F. ORCID: 0000-0001-6104-0 135, Deev A. D. ORCID: 0000-0002-7669-9714, Gorbunov V. M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5195-8997.

Received: 28/09-2018

Accepted: 03/10-2018

Acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction

ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME IN YOUNG PATIENTS: CLINICAL FEATURES AND RISK FACTORS

Ponomarenko I. V.1, Sukmanova I. A.1,2, Elykomov V. A.2

1 Altai Regional Cardiology Dispensary. Barnaul; 2Altai State Medical University. Barnaul, Russia

Abstract

Aim. To study the clinical features and risk factors (RF) associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in young patients.

Material and methods. The study included 474 patients with ACS. Depending on age, patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 299 patients of young age (25-44 years), the comparison group consisted of 175 patients of mean and old age (45-74 years). Clinical and anamnestic data, parameters of general clinical and biochemical tests, electrocardiography, echocardiography and coronary angiography were determined in all patients, and polymorphisms in FII

G20210-A, FV G1691-A, MTHFR C677-T genes were determined in 116 patients. The control group consisted of 53 healthy volunteers.

Results. ACS in patients <45 years old is most common in men. The number of women with ACS increases as elder patient is. The incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and unstable angina, ST-elevated MI and non ST-segment elevation MI, Q-wave and non-Q-wave MI had no differences between patients of the younger and older age groups. In younger patients, anterior localization of myocardial infarction was more common, in mean and old patients — posterior. Complications of MI in young patients were less common than in the comparison group. In patients of mean and old ages, acute coronary event was preceded by a clinic of angina, in young patients most often it was the debut of coronary artery disease. It was revealed that single-vessel coronary lesion is more characteristic for young patients, for the elderly patients — two-vessel and multi-vessel. Pathology of the anterior descending coronary artery prevailed in both groups of patients. Most patients in both groups underwent myocardial revascularization. MI as a result of coronary artery thrombosis happened more often in young patients. The most significant RF associated with the ACS development were: increased total cholesterol and low density lipoproteins, decreased high density lipoproteins, increased body mass index, smoking, polymorphism of MTHFR-homozygote, hereditary tainted with smoking, aggravation in combination with F5-homozygote, hereditary tainted in combination with MTHFR-homozygote, hereditary tainted in combination with smoking and MTHFR homozygote.

Conclusion. We identified clinical features and RF, mostly associated with the development of ACS in patients <45 years of age. The results can serve as additional indicators showed the risk of ACS development.

Key words: acute coronary syndrome, risk factors, young age, polymorphisms.

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Cardiovascular therapy and prevention. 2018;17(6):13–19

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-13-19

Ponomarenko I. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-3903-0552, Sukmanova I. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-8328-4050, Elykomov V. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-5423-2067.

Received: 24/09-2018

Accepted: 14/11-2018

DYNAMICS OF MAGNESEMIA LEVELS, STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL HEART PARAMETERS AND ARRHYTHMIA SYNDROME FEATURES IN PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND UNDIFFERENTIATED CONNECTIVE TISSUE DYSPLASIA AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF DRUG CORRECTION WITH MAGNESIUM

Miroshnichenko E. P., Ushakov A. V.

V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University. Simferopol, Russia

Abstract

Aim. To assess the relationship of serum magnesium levels with the structural-functional heart parameters and the arrhythmic syndrome features in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia (UCTD) against the background of drug correction with magnesium.

Material and methods. The study included 112 patients with Q-wave MI. Group I (n=22) consisted of patients with MI and UCTD, who, in addition to the standard basic therapy, from 1st day of IM took the magnesium drug. Group II (n=30) — patients with MI and UCTD who received only basic therapy. Group III (n=60) — patients with MI without UCTD who received standard basic therapy. The control group (n=32) — patients without cardiovascular pathology and without UCTD. For assessment we used clinical and phenotypic examinations, echocardiography and daily monitoring of the electrocardiogram, determination of serum magnesium level in the course of MI.

Results. We observed a decrease in serum magnesium level in patients with MI in all study groups on the 1st day of MI. Moreover, this tendency persisted for 28 days in the II and III groups. In the first group of patients against the background of the medical correction, an increase in the magnesium level was observed by the 28th day of MI. MI patients with UCTD revealed a more pronounced increase of left ventricular cavity dimensions, a decrease in its pumping ability. We also noted a tendency to a less pronounced increase in the left ventricular mass index compared with the group of patients with MI without UCTD. In addition, the development of MI in patients with UCTD compared with patients without UCTD is characterized by a higher frequency of paroxysmal supraventricular rhythm disturbances and paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia. Magnesium addition to MI treatment in patients with UCTD reduces the frequency of supraventricular arrhythmias.

Conclusion. In patients with MI, which occur on the background of UCTD, the initially existing hypomagnesaemia is associated with the development of a disadaptive version of the post-infarction cardiac remodeling. Magnesium use in patients with MI and UCTD helps to reduce the severity of hypomagnesaemia and the frequency of supraventricular cardiac rhythm disorders.

Key words: myocardial infarction, undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia, magnesium, heart remodeling, cardiac arrhythmias.

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):20–25

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-20-25

Miroshnichenko E. P. ORCID: 0000-0002-1877-5838, Ushakov A. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-7020-4442.

Received: 19/04-2018

Accepted: 14/05-2018

Arrhythmias

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF MARKERS OF INFLAMMATION AND FIBROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH VARIOUS CLINICAL FORMS OF ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

Grigoryan S. V.1,2, Azarapetyan L. G.1,2, Adamyan K. G.1,2

1 Mkhitar Heratsi Yerevan State Medical University, Yerevan; 2L. A. Oganesyan SRI of Cardiology. Yerevan, Armenia

Abstract

Aim. To identify and assess the significance of clinical and functional data characterizing cardiac remodeling, as well as inflammatory and fibrosis markers in patients with various clinical forms that promote the progression of atrial fibrillation (AF).

Material and methods. We observed 213 patients with arterial hypertension or in combination with coronary artery disease, who were diagnosed with AF. For the clinical and functional assessment of various clinical forms of AF, the significance of certain clinical, hemodynamic, structural, functional, and immunological risk factors for AF was studied. We used the method of binary logistic regression and calculated the significance of the risk factors odds ratio (OR).

Results. We made a database consisting of 33 indicators characterizing the clinical, hemodynamic and structural-functional heart condition, inflammatory and fibrosis markers, the significance of which was ambiguous in various clinical groups of AF patients. We identified enough informativeness of the OR significance for indicators of atrial electrical remodeling, which significantly increases from the paroxysmal AF to the persistent form. It confirms a significant role for the heterogeneity of pulses in the atria during the progression of AF. The degree of structural remodeling of both the atria and ventricles also

significantly increases with the progression of AF. We also noted that inflammatory markers have statistically significant role with paroxysmal AF. With persistent AF, the significance of OR for inflammatory markers increases, and with permanent AF, their significance decreases. The significance of the OR in fibrosis marker is significantly high with AF and in the further AF progression, and it significantly increases with the persistent AF form.

Conclusion. We determined different degrees of electrical and structural remodeling of the atria and ventricles in patients with various clinical forms of AF. At the same time, there is an increase in the reliability of OR in inflammatory and fibrosis markers. However, in patients with persistent AF, the duration of AF and increase in the significance of the OR in fibrosis marker come to the fore.

Key words: atrial fibrillation, cardiac remodeling, inflammation, fibrosis.

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):26–31

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-26-31

Grigoryan S. V. ORCID: 0000-0001-9628-106X, Azarapetyan L. G. ORCID: 0000-0003-1811-5108, Adamyan K. G. ORCID: 0000-0003-4965-4593.

Received: 04/06-2018

Accepted: 15/08-2018

Acute violation of cerebral circulation

HOSPITAL REGISTER OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT (REGION): CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENT AND OUTCOMES OF HOSPITAL TREATMENT

Martsevich S. Yu.1, Kutishenko N. P.1, Lukyanov M. M.1, Zagrebelny A. V.1, Dmitrieva N. A. 1, Okshina E. Yu.1, Akimova A. V.1, Voronina V. P.1, Lerman O. V.1, Gladilkina M. P.2, Krasnikova G. I.2, Palamarchuk V. N.2, Parsadanyan N. E.3, Chernyshova M. I.3, Belova E. N.1, Kudryashov E. V.1, Shamalov N. A. 4, Arutyunov G. P.4, Drapkina O. M.1, Boytsov S. A.5 on behalf of the working group#

1 National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine of the Ministry of Health. Moscow; 2F. I. Inozemtsev City Polyclinic. Moscow; 3City Polyclinic № 64. Moscow; 4N. I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University. Moscow; 5National medical research center of cardiology. Moscow, Russia

Abstract

Aim. To assess the characteristics of patients and short-term outcomes of the disease in patients hospitalized for cerebral stroke (CS) based on the REGION-Moscow register.

Material and methods. From 2012 to 2017, 900 patients were included in the REGION-Moscow register, who were consecutively admitted to one of the clinics in Moscow, and in whom CS or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were diagnosed during hospitalization.

Results. The average age of the entire cohort of patients was 71±15 years. Women were 59,4%, men — 40,6%. The average age of women was 7 years more than the average age of men. Cardiovascular risk factors or a combination of them were detected in most patients. About 75% of CS were ischemic, 10% — hemorrhagic, 2% — mixed type, 13% were transient ischemic attack. Hospital mortality on average over the 5 years were 24,0%. There was a sharp increase in hospital mortality

in 2014, which coincided with the organization of the vascular center, in subsequent years there was a progressive decrease in hospital mortality.

Conclusion. The development of CS in most patients was predictable and determined mainly by the presence of cardiovascular risk factors or a combination of them. Organization of the vascular center led to a gradual decrease in hospital mortality.

Key words: cerebral stroke, register, risk factors, hospital mortality.

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Funding. A research grant from Pfizer was provided for the study. Pfizer did not influence the analysis of the results and the conclusions made in the study.

#REGION-Moscow register working group: Akimova A. V., Arutyunov G. P., Belova E. N., Blagodatskikh S. V., Boytsov S. A., Vernohaeva A. N., Viskov R. V., Voronina V. P., Gladilkina M. P., Deev A. D., Dmitrieva N. A., Drapkina O. M. Zagrebelny A. V., Kvitivadze G. K, Klyashtorny V. G., Kokareva I. V. , Kudryashov E. V., Kutishenko N. P., Lerman O. V.,

Lukyanov M. M., Martsevich S. Yu., Matveyeva A. D., Matskevich L. A., Mitichkin A. E., Nikitina G. I., Nikoshnova E. S. Ovsepyan M. A., Okshina E. Yu., Palamarchuk V. N., Parsadanyan N. E., Porezanova M. V., Sementsov D. P., Stakhovskaya L. V., Stepina E. V., Stolboushkina E. A., Halaeva M. A., Chernyshova M. I., Shamalov N. A.

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):32–38

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-32-38

Martsevich S. Yu. ORCID: 0000-0002-7717-4362, Kutishenko N. P. ORCID: 0000-0001-6395-2584, Lukyanov M. M. ORCID: 0000-0002-5784-4525, Zagrebelny A. V. ORCID: 0000-0003-1493-4544, Dmitrieva N. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-8119-9645, Okshina E. Yu. ORCID: 0000-0001-7891-3721, Akimova A. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-8380-0518, Voronina V. P. ORCID: 0000-0001-5603-7038, Lerman O. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-3299-1078, Gladilkina M. P. ORCID: 0000-0002-0204-8396, Krasnikova G. I. ORCID: 0000-0001-8237-2788, Palamarchuk V. N. ORCID: 0000-0002-7792-8945, Parsadanyan N. E. ORCID: 0000-0001-7037-8277, Chernyshova M. I. ORCID: 0000-0001-7257-3471, Belova E. N. ORCID: 0000-0002-8169-8919, Kudryashov E. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-2639-9211, Shamalov N. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-6250-0762, Arutyunov

G. P. ORCID: 0000-0002-6645-2515, Drapkina O. M. ORCID: 0000-0002-4453-8430, Boytsov S. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-6998-8406.

Received: 17/08-2018

Accepted: 05/10-2018

Clinical case

A RARE CASE OF SUCCESSFUL RECANALIZATION OF THE ANTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR ARTERY THROUGH A MAMMARY-CORONARY GRAFT IN A PATIENT 15 YEARS AFTER CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING

Alekseeva M. A., Vartanov P. V., Asymbekova E. U., Ioshina V. I., Shuvaev I. P., Buziashvili Yu. I.

A. N. Bakulev National Medical Research Center of Cardiovascular Surgery. Moscow, Russia

Abstract

Progression of atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent surgical treatment, manifests itself in the development of dysfunction of the shunts, and in worsening of the condition of native coronary arteries. Accordingly, there is an increase in the number of patients who require repeated aggressive treatments. In cases where it is technically possible to perform repeated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or percutaneous interventions (PCI),

there is no question of treatment tactics. But there are times when implementation of interventions is associated with a high risk and optimal medication therapy does not have the proper effect. In a patient with multiple lesions of the coronary arteries 15 years after CABG in connection with the progression of atherosclerosis, the occlusion of anterior interventricular artery (AIVA) is distal to the mammary-coronary anastomosis, the occlusion of the venous shunt to the right coronary artery. Effort angina (class III) is caused by myocardial ischemia in the AIVA territory. Patient underwent surgery for recanalization of AIVA through mammary-coronary shunt.

Key words: percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary bypass, recanalization of coronary artery occlusion.

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):39–42

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-39-42

Alekseeva M. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-3736-2991, Vartanov P. V. ORCID: 0000-0003-1840-9050, Asymbekova E. U. ORCID: 0000-0002-5422-2069, Ioshina V. I. ORCID: 0000-0003-4591-2161, Shuvaev I. P. ORCID: 0000-0003-1242-687Х, Buziashvili Yu. I. ORCID: 0000-0001-7016-7541.

Received: 17/05-2018

Accepted: 15/08-2018

Epidemiology and рrevention

FREQUENCY OF RISK FACTORS FOR CHRONIC NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES AMONG PHYSICIANS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON THE MODEL OF TOMSK REGION

Kobyakova O. S., Kulikov E. S., Deev I. A., Almikeyeva A. A., Pimenov, I. D., Starovoitova E. A.

Siberian State Medical University of the Ministry of Health. Tomsk, Russia

Abstract

Aim. To determine the frequency and structure of risk factors (RF) for chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs) among physicians in the Tomsk Region.

Material and methods. The questionnaire was compiled based on the methodological guidelines “Monitoring of risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases in practical healthcare”. The questionnaire was provided in electronic format and posted on the site http://www. golosaonline.ru/medto.

Results. Doctors of the Tomsk region revealed a high frequency of such RF for CNCDs as chronic as hypodynamia (45,7%), improper feeding (67,6%) and overweight (34,7%).

Conclusion. The study showed that the frequency of RF for CNCDs in a Tomsk region was lower than the same one in general population. However, there is a need to develop practical guidelines for healthcare workers.

Key words: risk factors, chronic noncommunicable diseases, doctors.

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):44–50

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-44-50

Kobyakova O. S. ORCID: 0000-0003-0098-1403, Kulikov E. S. ORCID: 0000-0002-0088-9204, Deev I. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-4449-4810, Almikeyeva A. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-9911-200X, Pimenov, I. D. ORCID: 0000-0003-3866-100X, Starovoitova E. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-8283-2238.

Received: 19/06-2018

Accepted: 05/10-2018

Research, meta-analyses, registers

FEATURES AND MAIN PROBLEMS OF TREATING PATIENTS WITH HIGH AND VERY HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK WITH STATINS IN REAL CLINICAL PRACTICE (ACCORDING TO THE DATA OF THE “PRIORITET” RESEARCH)

Martsevich S. Yu.1, Lukina Yu. V.1, Kutishenko N. P.1, Dmitrieva N. A.1, Gomova T. A.2, Drozdetsky S. I.3, Kudryashov E. A.4, Lerman O. V.1, Puchinyan N. F.5, Skibitsky V. V. 4 on behalf of the working group of the “PRIORITET” research#

1 National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine of the Ministry of Health. Moscow; 2Tula regional clinical hospital. Tula;3Volga Research Medical University. Nizhny Novgorod; 4Kuban State Medical University, Krasnodar; 5V. I. Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University. Saratov, Russia

Abstract

Aim. To determine the features and main problems of statin therapy, as well as assess the possibility of achieving the target level of lipid pattern in patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk (CVR) in real clinical practice.

Material and methods. The design of the “PRIORITET” observational program is an open observational study. Patients with high and very high CVR were divided into 3 groups in accordance with the initial data: (1) not taking statins, (2) taking statins, but not reaching the target lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, (3) taking statins with the achievement of the target LDL-C level, which is justified in replacing the statin inside the class — adverse effects (AE), high price, etc. Within 12 weeks 3 visits of patients to hospitals were carried out: baseline visit (B0), visit 1 month after the study initiation (B1) and visit 3 months after the study initiation (B3). The choice of atorvastatin or rosuvastatin was assessed by the doctors.

Results. Groups 1, 2 and 3 included 112, 170 and 16 people, respectively. At B0, 145 (48,7%) patients were prescribed atorvastatin, and 153 (51,3%) — rosuvastatin. Three people dropped out of the study to B3, 295 patients completed the program. Lipid pattern of 285 patients were analyzed: 121 (41%) people (101 with very high CVR and 20 with high CVR) achieved the target LDL-C level, the remaining 164 (59%) patients (CVR — 156 and 8, respectively) — no. The most pronounced dynamics of LDL=C level was revealed in group 1, the differences between group 1 and groups 2 and 3 are highly statistically significant (p<0,0001). There were no differences in the frequency of reaching the target LDL-C level between patients taking atorvastatin or rosuvastatin. The target level of LDL-C (p=0,003) in the treatment of rosuvastatin in patients with high CVR was reached significantly more often than in patients with very high CVR. Also 3 non-serious AEs were reported. On average, in 9% of cases, reaching the target level of LDL-С during visits B1 and B3 was wrong interpreted by the attending physicians.

Conclusion. The main problems of statin therapy in real clinical practice are the wrong interpretation of reaching the target level of LDL-C, inertness of doctors in titrating of statins doses and achieving the target level of lipid pattern. It may be the cause of reduced efficiency and deterioration of lipid-lowering therapy results in patients with high and very high CVR. The results of the “PRIORITET” study demonstrated the possibility of improving the practice of statins use and its accordance with clinical guidelines.

Key words: statin therapy, generic drugs, rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, efficacy, safety, real clinical practice.

Conflicts of interest: the authors declare about potential conflict of interest. The “PRIORITET” observational program was conducted with the assistance of OAO OZON, which in no way affected the authors’ opinion, the results and conclusions of study.

#Working Group of the “PRIORITET” study: Voronina V. P. (Moscow), Zelenova T. I. (Moscow), Sladkova T. A. (Moscow), Alekseeva A. I. (Tula), Barabanova T. Yu. (Tula), Zotova A. S. (Tula), Kolomeitseva T. M. (Tula), Prikhod’ko T. N. (Tula), Pazelt E. A. (Nizhny Novgorod), Khramushev N. Yu. (Nizhny Novgorod), Skibitsky A. V. (Krasnodar), Alekseeva V. V. (Saratov), Lazareva E. V. (Saratov).

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):52–60

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-52-60

Martsevich S. Yu. ORCID: 0000-0002-7717-4362, Lukina Yu. V. ORCID: 0000-0001-8252-3099, Kutishenko N. P. ORCID: 0000-0001-6395-2584, Dmitrieva N. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-8119-9645, Gomova T. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-5588-9316, Drozdetsky S. I. ORCID: 0000-0002-3384-4352, Kudryashov E. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-8050-0691, Lerman O. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-3299-1078, Puchinyan N. F. ORCID: 0000-0001-5029-1131, Skibitsky V. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-7750-7358.

Received: 16/11-2018

Accepted: 19/11-2018

Opinion on a problem

COMORBIDITY OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE: FEATURES OF PATHOGENESIS, CLINIC AND DIAGNOSTICS

Tokmachev R. E., Mukhortova M. S., Budnevsky A. V., Tokmachev E. V., Ovsyannikov E. S.

N. N. Burdenko Voronezh State Medical University. Voronezh, Russia

Abstract

This article discusses the epidemiology of chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CHF and COPD are characterized by high prevalence and high mortality, especially when they are combined. The article analyzes the general mechanisms of formation of these diseases: the relationship of COPD with cardiovascular diseases is explained by common risk factors, including smoking, physical inactivity, improper feeding and genetic predisposition. The leading role in the pathogenesis of pathologies is played by the activation and maintenance of systemic inflammation. Article presents the features of the clinical picture and the direction of the diagnostics in case of suspected combined pathology, the possibilities of modern laboratory and instrumental research methods. Diagnostics of comorbidity of CHF and COPD may be

difficult, given the above common risk factors, some common pathogenesis mechanisms and similar clinical symptoms. However the caution regarding the comorbidity of the studied conditions, as well as a thorough clinical examination and the appointment of the necessary additional research methods, can reduce the number of diagnostic mistakes and improve the prognosis in such patients.

Key words: chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systemic inflammation, proinflammatory cytokines, comorbidity.

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):62–68

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-62-68

Tokmachev R. E. ORCID: 0000-0001-6379-4635, Mukhortova M. S. ORCID: 0000-0003-4981-8383, Budnevsky A. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-1171-2746, Tokmachev E. V. ORCID: 0000-0001-9155-7899, Ovsyannikov E. S. ORCID: 0000-0002-8545-6255.

Received: 23/03-2018

Accepted: 04/05-2018

TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN OBESE PATIENTS: FOCUS ON TELMISARTAN

Deneka I. E., Rodionov A. V., Fomin V. V.

I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Moscow, Russia

Abstract

The article discusses the role of telmisartan in the treatment of arterial hypertension in patients with metabolic syndrome. Telmisartan is second-generation type 1 angiotensin II receptor blocker, which has unique pleiotropic effects due to partial affinity for receptors that activate the proliferation of subtype γ peroxisomes (PPARγ) located in adipose tissue. The interrelation of metaflamation, a specific chronic inflammatory process with pathogenetic mechanisms of development of cardiovascular diseases, including arterial hypertension, is also described in study. The role of the adiponectin peptide is considered, which synthesis is stimulated by partial PPARγ receptor agonists (as mentioned above — telmisartan). It has a positive effect on fat and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as cardioprotective properties. The conclusion contains the results of numerous randomized studies and meta-analyzes confirming the high efficacy of telmisartan in the treatment of arterial hypertension in patients with morbid obesity.

Key words: arterial hypertension, telmisartan, obesity, metabolic syndrome, adiponectin, PPARγ.

Funding. The publication is supported by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd.

Conflicts of interest: the authors assert a possible conflicts of interest.

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):69–76

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-69-76

Deneka I. E. ORCID: 0000-0001-9847-7349, Rodionov A. V. ORCID: 0000-0003-1565-5440, Fomin V. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-2682-4417.

Received: 28/11-2018

Revision Received: 03/12-2018

Accepted: 04/12-2018

Reviews

WHAT “NEW” FACTORS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED WHEN ASSESSING CARDIOVASCULAR RISK?

Smirnova M. D., Barinova I. V., Fofanova T. V., Blankova Z. N., Svirida O. N., Ageev F. T., Boytsov S. A.

Scientific Medical Research Center of Cardiology of the Ministry of Health. Moscow, Russia

Abstract

One of the causes of high mortality from cardiovascular diseases is the lack of effective measures for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular complications (CCO), due to the difficulty of timely identification risk factors (RF) and individuals with a high individual risk of CCO. This is especially true for patients from low/mean risk. This group is heterogeneous. Often, clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis occur for the first time without “classical” RF. Possible factors that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and CCO, are: heart rate, increased formation of advanced glycation endproducts, disorders of bone mineral metabolism, thyroid function, low adherence to therapy, psychosocial factors and climatic features. This review is devoted to the analysis of the evidence base of the influence of these “new” CCO RF and the individual patient prognosis.

Key words: “new” risk factors for cardiovascular complications, cardiovascular risk, heart rate, mineral metabolism disorders,

hypothyroidism, advanced glycation endproducts, therapy adherence, psychosocial factors.

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):77–85

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-77-85

Smirnova M. D. ORCID: 0000-0001-6515-3882, Barinova I. V. ORCID: 0000-0003-3753-1860, Fofanova T. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-3321-2902, Blankova Z. N. ORCID: 0000-0002-9858-6956, Svirida O. N. ORCID: 0000-0003-1317-036X, Ageev F. T. ORCID: 0000-0003-4369-1393, Boytsov S. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-6998-8406.

Received: 20/07-2018

Accepted: 27/09-2018

FIXED COMBINATIONS IN MODERN HYPERTENSION TREATMENT ALGORITHMS

Sayutina E. V.

I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Moscow, Russia

Abstract

Modern appropriate treatment of hypertension involves the use of combination antihypertensive therapy. According to updated version of European Society of Cardiology 2018 guidelines, renin-angiotensinaldosterone system blockers must be used as first-line drugs, including in combination with hydrochlorothiazide. This article presents the algorithms for the management of patients with uncomplicated and asymptomatic (with target lesions) arterial hypertension. It also described the management of patients with concomitant cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, renal pathology and diabetes mellitus, and use of fixed combination of candesartan and hydrochlorothiazide. The article presents research data that confirmed not only the high antihypertensive efficacy of this combination, but also demonstrated its neutral metabolic profile, organ-protective effects, the ability to use in patients with chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, prior stroke, as well as high tolerability and treatment adherence.

Key words: arterial hypertension, therapeutic algorithms, combined antihypertensive therapy, fixed combinations, target lesions, RAAS blockers, candesartan, thiazide diuretics.

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Cardiovascular therapy and prevention. 2018;17(6):86–94

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-86-94

Sayutina E. V. ORCID: 0000-0001-9611-5096.

Received: 04/12-2018

Revision Received: 06/12-2018

Accepted: 07/12-2018

AMBULATORY PULSE WAVE MONITORING: CURRENT AND FUTURE. OPINION PAPER OF RUSSIAN EXPERTS

Kotovskaya Yu. V.1, Rogoza A. N.2, Orlova Ya. A. 3, Posokhov I. N.4

1 Russian Gerontology Clinical Research Center of the Ministry of Health. Moscow; 2Scientific Medical Research Center of Cardiology of the Ministry of Health. Moscow; 3Lomonosov Moscow State University. Moscow; 4Laboratoriya Gemodinamiki Ltd. Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

Abstract

The predictive value of vascular biomarkers such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), central arterial pressure (CAP), and augmentation index (AIx), obtained through pulse wave analysis (PWA) in resting conditions, has been documented in a variety of patient groups and populations. There are appropriate recommendations on their clinical use in clinical practice guidelines of various scientific societies. Operator-independent methods are currently available for estimating vascular biomarkers also in ambulatory conditions. The acceptable accuracy and reproducibility of ambulatory PWA makes it be a promising tool for evaluating vascular biomarkers in daily-life conditions. This approach may provide an opportunity to further improve the early cardiovascular screening in subjects at risk. However, there is no sufficient evidence to support the

routine clinical use of PWA in ambulatory conditions at the moment. In particular, long-term outcome studies are needed to show the predictive value of ambulatory PWV, CAP and AIx values.

Key words: ambulatory monitoring, pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity, central aortic pressure, augmentation index, arterial hypertension

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):95–109

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-4-95-109

Kotovskaya Yu. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-1628-5093, Rogoza A. N. ORCID: 0000-0002-0543-3089, Orlova Ya. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-8160-5612, Posokhov I. N. ORCID: 0000-0002-2381-0351.

Received: 14/06-2018

Accepted: 29/10-2018

THE ROLE OF NEUTROPHILS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS

Saranchina Yu. V., Dutova S. V., Kilina O. Yu., Khanarin N. V., Kulakova T. S.

N. F. Katanov Khakassian State University. Abakan, Russia

Abstract

Atherosclerosis (AS) is one of the causes of cardiovascular disease. The formation of atherosclerotic lesions of the arteries is a long process, and clinical symptoms appear already at the stage of atherosclerotic plaque (ASB), which prevents blood flow and can cause coronary heart disease, as well as acute coronary syndrome. The study of atherosclerosis mechanisms at the subclinical level is relevant. This article provides a summary of current data on the structure and functions of neutrophils (NF) in physiological processes. Particular attention is paid to the participation of neutrophils in the damage and formation of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Discusses several mechanisms of involvement of neutrophils in atherogenesis: the production of reactive oxygen species, which cause direct endothelial damage; the synthesis of cytokines that trigger the migration of leukocytes in inflammation; the formation of protein complexes with cholesterol, contributing to their deposition in the vessels, and neutrophil traps, triggering destructivealterative reactions.

Key words: neutrophils, atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic plaque, neutrophil traps, neutrophilic elastase, neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocaine.

Conflicts of interest: nothing to declare.

Funding. The results were obtained in the framework of the state task № 17.9545.2017/BCh of the Ministry of education and science of Russia.

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):110–116

http://dx.doi.org/10.15829/1728-8800-2018-6-110-116

Saranchina Yu. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-2697-7317, Dutova S. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-1849-7735, Kilina O. Yu. ORCID: 0000-0002-8862-3282, Khanarin N. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-4850-1627, Kulakova T. S. ORCID: 0000-0002-9528-2535.

Received: 25/10-2018

Accepted: 13/11-2018

Information

VIII International Forum of Cardiologists and Therapists from 27 to 29 March 2019, Moscow INFORMATION LETTER

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):117-119

Articles published in Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention 2018

Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2018;17(6):120-124

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